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» Report 2008
Part Three - ARTISTS AND THE MARKET
WORK AND CAPITAL
Chapter 5 - Profession and Job Market
An Improper Census
Just as seen with the corporate designation (in Italian ‘forma giuridica’) of the cinema companies, the quota of non limited companies (51.5% among the 9,071 active in 2007, but with a growing trend confirmed by the 78.0% of new inscriptions in the course of a year) is greatly elevated. Furthermore, between these companies 32.6% consist of sole proprietorships (actually 63.3% of those registered in 2007), whereas 15.0% are represented by partnerships and 3.9% by other forms, such as co-operatives and consortiums.
This does not necessarily entail companies without other employees apart from the founding owners, because, in reality, also a part of these have dependent personnel; however, in correspondence with their corporate designation such companies are structured to have a limited number of employees. Moreover, it can be observed that among the same limited companies over half (over 2.6 thousand out of almost 4.4 thousand) are so small that only a very meagre number of employees can be counted.
Considering the cinema sector in a limited sense – and not in the more expansive sense which includes all areas of pre and post-production services, outsourcing, and  professional and marketing intermediaries – certainly does not correspond to a vast amount of stable employment. Nevertheless, it remains less simple to estimate how many individual factors the industry is composed. This is a result of the fact that not all financial statements – only deposited obligatorily by limited companies – state the number of persons on their pay books and even Cerved is incapable of obtaining the elements necessary for qualifying the number, typology, distribution, costs and incidence on the turnover.
The primary  basis of such an investigation remains the annual report of ISTAT (the Italian National Institute of Statistics) on the job market and on the overall state of employment in Italy. This does not involve a census, in as much as the gathering of data originates from a sample investigation and therefore from the declarations which the companies – of all sectors – make, voluntarily answering to questioners sent by the organization; in any case, on the basis of the latest elaboration the cinema sector employees (or rather those companies identifiable in ATECO code 92.1) amount to 47,527. Despite including the employees of companies which supply services and equipment, the data does not include those dependents of the industry who produce systems, technology and primary materials (and which constitute the sector in its totality, as mentioned previously) destined for cinema companies and who would bring the total number of work units having direct reference to limited companies to almost 55 thousand. In any case, the arithmetic mean of dependent  personnel is definitely 5.2
A second element for extending a rather more circumstantial and detailed report is supplied by the study – “Le imprese dell’audiovisivo nel Lazio” (Audio-visual companies in Lazio) which CENSIS (Centro Studi Investimenti Sociali – Centre for the Study of Social Investment) carried out in collaboration with Videoplay at the end of 2007, directly involving 403 companies. It is a study which focuses on only local activities, however, being Lazio – the region which more or less represents national cinema – of which Rome and Cinecitta’ are the symbols, assumes a value of representation which is wholly reliable (and, to respect the exigencies of a better adherence to real, entrepreneurial quality the activities of the two major groups, Rai and Mediaset, were not revealed, which would have, as a result of their balance posts and interests, inevitably influenced the general outline).
Even if regional cinema companies are necessarily considered as the best ‘equipped’ within the Italian panorama it is also true that despite contributing, according to Cerved, only 28.8% of the total national group, according to ISTAT they can boast 45.5% of global occupation – the results of the research can be considered certainly adequate and completely meaningful..



Source: Censis Report “Le imprese dell’audiovisivo nel Lazio”, 2007.


The other source of information capable of adding diverse extras is the mutual organization ENPALS, which, for the 3,471 cinema companies enrolled registers 76,442 personal contributory positions (who have the rights to at least one day of contributions per year). With a theoretical average per company of 22 employees – on whose behalf contributions are paid – far greater than the number revealed by the ISTAT study. However, according to the registrations of the institute, the dependent personnel with indeterminate contracts amount to few more than 18,700: a figure which brings the company average to 5.3 – more or less in line with the 5.2 estimated by ISTAT.
In fact the provident and assistance systems of the organizations can also enter associates and owners who enrol on the pay books of their companies, as such the contributions paid by companies for subjects from time to time put on contract generally end up in the accounts of the institute which, directly managing their services (through representative agents or on their own) find themselves in a condition similar to that of freelance professionals or autonomous workers. They are equally compensated, with retributive forms  for services and in large measure find themselves in the category of ‘artists and technicians’ containing over 58,700 subjects (corresponding to 77% of the entire cinema industry perimeter).
The second ENPALS category ‘workers and employees’ numbers, in fact, little more than 17,500 individuals, identifiable in dependent personnel, and indeed it is true that despite being equal to only 23% they “cover” the major section – 63% - of working days included to calculate the extent of so-called “social contributions”. On the other hand, of  the eight areas of codified activities (production companies, various productions, production establishments, development and printing, dubbing, distribution and rental, exclusively cinema businesses, all-purpose cinema businesses) the first two – those of major culture and industrial tradition and generally having a permanent staff, even if of few persons – number a large majority of fixed positions, as well as those of a temporary nature: over 25,900 with an incidence of 34% out of a total of old and new contributors.

 

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