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Report 2008
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» Report 2008
Part Three - ARTISTS AND THE MARKET
WORK AND CAPITAL
Chapter 4 - Companies and private enterprise
The Available Data
The lack of knowledge, in reality, is not absolute. A preliminary but nonetheless reliable source for consultation is ‘ENPALS’, the national board of welfare and assistance for workers in show business and in sport, in the role of which figure all of the companies that sustain with staffing costs (including owners registered on the payroll)  the obligatory payments to the state for healthcare and pensions and  the intervention of the state for workers in financial difficulty. According to the most recent report on the actuarial-statistical coordination of public institutions the contributing companies on 31st December 2007 were a total of 25,872, subdivided into eight categories: music (5,742), the theatre (2,381), radio and television (1,430), entertainment and various performing arts (6,606),  sports institutions (4,358), professional sports players (222), other unclassifiable activities of various types (1,613) and cinema with 3,520 companies – up from 3,288 in 2004, 3,241 in 2005, and 3,471 in 2006 – active in eight areas: stabilizing production; production enterprises; various productions; development and the media; dubbing; distribution and rental; exclusively cinematographical enterprises and more general cinematographical enterprises.
A second source of reference is FUS – ‘Fondo unico per lo spettacolo’ (unique show business fund) the instrument of incentives with which MiBac – the Ministry of cultural assets and activities – divides the allocated contributions every year in order to sustain activity within the areas of music and opera, as well as dance, theatre, show business, travelling performances, and cinema (as far as the latter sector is concerned the requests for financial assistance presented in 2007 were a good 1,931: 702 from organizations, establishments and associations and 1,229 from companies involved in production, circulation and enterprise). The recapitulative reports of the fund management permit us, for instance, to ascertain that from 2000 to today the turnover of requests for access to public tax breaks – considering only full trade names and excluding those who in the past have represented other requests and independently of those whose subsequent acceptance of the request for assistance has been conceded – has, on the whole, been little more than 3.5 thousand diverse companies and cooperatives. Aside from the demographic aspect, what counts is, nevertheless, the actual description offered. This description, in fact, deals with 97% small companies and their numerical strength signals that which is the real operative and “environmental” context of the national film industry.
It is, moreover, possible to carry out further verification of vital statistics in the archives and digital databases of private publishing companies, marketing firms and IT specialists. This is the case with the historical “Annuario del cinema italiano & audiovisivi”  (Year-Book of Italian Cinema and Audiovisuals) founded by Alessandro Ferraù; and also with “Trovaset” of Star Edizioni; or of “chi è” on the internet site cinemaitaliano.info, or indeed of the analogous  Who’s Who (which is also available online) set up by Filmitalia – the company of Cinecittà Holding which deals with the overseas promotion of  Italian cinema 1.
These are practical and certainly invaluable tools for those operating in the sector – thanks to a wealth of registration data that confirm the extent and real composition of the cinema system. However, sources of this type do not legitimately conceive and permit the user to draw on added information aside from simple names and logistics.
On the other hand, not even recourse to category organizations is enough to give a wholly reliable picture.  Although there are a high number of associations of film makers present in Italy they do not unify all of the operators within the sector and their representation, rather than being general, appears circumscribed (for some observers, being the expression of a limited and highly homogenous group, these associations seem to assume some of the characteristics of corporatism). Practically none of them publish the names of the persons enrolled, few declare the real number of members and the vast majority limit themselves to offering “official” and general data concerning the amount of production and the directors of associated companies, without considering the more significant issues.2.


1 “Annuario del cinema italiano & audiovisivi” in the edition 2008-2009 (number 57) reports the indications of around 2 thousand companies: 306 of television and cinema productions; 134 for distribution; 1000 for business and finance; 144 for technical means; 91 for services; 87 for post-production, 72 for communications and graphics, 53 for dubbing, 90 for artistic agencies of representation, 47 for casting, 42 for photography studios, 22 for development and printing and 17 for product placement, as well as 4 thousand actor and director records, 315 for foreign artists and 2200 of films produced in Italy from 1985 to 2007. ‘Trovaset’ lists 15 thousand operators, divided into 200 professional categories, of cinema, television, publicity and audiovisuals in general. In the ‘Who’s Who’ of cinemaitaliano.info there are 1,266 companies and organizations of production (among which 489 are active only in the area of documentaries), 78 producers of home video, 186 distributors for cinema circuits, as well as 389 producers (in the sense of persons), 109 companies which are involved with foreign sales, 157 printing offices and 285 organizations (230 of which are Italian at the national, regional and communal level, plus 55 foreign companies), classified for received emanations to various titles of subsidizing for production of films and, above all, of documentaries. The online repertory of Filmitalia numbers 668 production companies, 119 involved in international co-productions and 107 of distribution, plus 45 representation agencies (on the mandatory power of film makers) or promotion. (Last consultation of internet sites:31st March 2009).
2 ANICA – the Italian ‘Associazione nazionale industrie cinematografiche audiovisive-multimediali’ (National Association of Cinema,Audiovisual and Multimedia Industries) is the most consolidated and forms a part of (through the federal organization ‘Sistema cultura Italia’) of ‘Confindustria’ (the Italian version of the Confederation of British Industry), the major national organization of private entrepreneurship. It is the signatory of all trade union agreements and national work contracts of the sector even if configured with a type of structure that can be assimilated to that of second order organizations, with specific sectors where the operators of diverse areas converge: film studios, distribution companies, so-called technical companies (development and printing, film studios, means rental, post-production audio and video, transport); the companies specializing in short films, publicity and documentaries; the companies of multiplex management, which, in this case, (they are the major 11) have given legal personality to their re-grouping: ANEM – Associazione nazionale esercenti multiplex (National Association of Multiplex Trading). This primarily represents the operators of large and medium sizes – including major foreign companies, Mediaset and the public groups RAI and Cinecittà Holding – for a contribution to the sector in terms of business volume and of employees greater than 60% as opposed to a numerical consistency that is estimated at less than 20%. For production it is also necessary to count API – Autori produttori indipendente (Independent producers and authors), with 29 members, APT – Associazione produttori televisivi with 11 members, APE – Associazione produttori esecutivi with 13 principle elements of the industry and for distribution Univideo – Unione italiana editoria audiovisiva (Italian Union for Audiovisual Publishing), which, with 66 company affiliates claims to represent 90% of the home video market (among the adherents one again finds the major United States, and Japanese, companies as well as the major national operators from RAI and Medusa to Mondadori and RCS, from De Agostini and Hachette to Filmauro, Mondo TV, Istituto Luce and the like) whereas the minor operators are included in UNIDIM – Unione nazionale imprese distribuzione multimediale. Other factors in the field of business and finance include ANEC – Associazione nazionale esercenti cinema (National Association of Cinema Traders) which principally involves the management companies of single and multi screen cinemas; ACEC – Associazione cattolica esercenti cinema (Catholic Association of Cinema Traders) which includes 1,050 much sought after cinema halls (but not all) which are generally parochial and FICE – Federazione italiana cinema d’essai (Italian Federation of Arts Cinemas) with 450 of the other thousand active structures..

 

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